Hernias in The
diaphragm, which separates the chest and abdominal cavities, contracts
and relaxes to cause respiration. If a defect or tear occurs in the
diaphragm, abdominal organs can move into the chest cavity. While
congenital (birth) defects can occur, most often some type of traumatic
injury such as jumping down from a great hight - an act which throws
the full weight of the abdominal contents forward against the diaphragm
when the animal lands on its feet, will lead to a tear in the
diaphragm. Clinical signs will vary with the size/severity of the tear
and may include trouble breathing, blue lips and gums and inability to
get comfortable and death. Diagnosis is based on history, physical
examination, X-rays and blood counts with organ chemistries.
Hiatal hernia is the result of the abdominal part of the esophagus
and/or part of the stomach poking back through the hiatus. The stomach
may also fold back into the esophagus. Treatment may be medical or
surgical depending on the severity and cause.
hernias can be congenital or aquired and are often due to Trauma.
It may be caused by the abdominal muscle stretching during pregnancy or
atrophy of the abdominal wall due to old age. These hernias
present as skin covered bulges in the groin area. In the
groin area where the leg meets the body, a ring of fibrous tissue
exists to allow nerves, blood vessels and in the male dog, the
spermatic cord, to pass from inside the body. Most commonly found in
females, this ring may be too large and signs of fat or intestine may
fill the groin area. In some cases, herniation occurs on both left and
right sides. There are three types:
1: reducible-when the protrusion can be pushed back into the abdomen
2: Incarcerated-when the bulge cannot be pushed back into the abdomen
3: strangulated-If the contents of the hernia do not receive adequate blood supply it is called a strangulated hernia.
condition in which abdominal contents protrude through the abdominal
wall at the area of the umbilicus. Most present as a soft,
ventral abdominal mass at the navel. Dogs, just like humans, have a
navel that tends to be flat, smooth and hidden by hair. If this
junction either fails to close properly or the mother is too rough
tearing off the umbilical cord, the opening can be wider than normal.
With smaller hernias, signs include fat or omentum protruding under the
skin. With larger hernias, the intestines or liver can protrude.
Diagnosis is based on physical examination and X-ray
type of inguinal hernia occurs in male dogs and fat or intestine passes
clear into the scrotum. Diagnosis is based on physical examination and
X-rays. It is thought to be a heritable condition normally seen
as a painless swelling in the scrotum. Treatment is to castrate.
occur just lateral to the pets anus. Most common in older male
uncastrated dogs secondary to an enlarged prostate. Perianal hernias
occur as muscular and connective tissues seem to deteriorate with age
in the area between the anus and point of the pelvis nearest the tail.
Many dogs will show signs of a swelling near the anus that makes
defecation difficult as, in many cases, the rectum and urinary bladder
pass into the hernia. This can be so severe as to even block urination
or defecation completely. Hernias on both sides also occur in some
cases. Diagnosis is based on physical examination and X-rays.
Hernias are very rare and sometimes occur in performing dogs which have
been trained to walk on their hind legs for a considerable amount of
time. The vertical position of the body imposes an unusual strain
on the muscles at the fold of the thigh and they give way. They
are always aquired.
development of the diaphragm and pleuropericardial membranes that
allows herniation of variable amounts of abdominal contents into the
pericardial sac. May cause dyspnea, tachypnea, vomiting, diarrhea,
cardiac tamponade and congestive heart failure, but some cases are only
detected incidentally at postmortem examination. Seen in dogs and cats.
||An incisional hernia occurs in the abdomen in the area of an old surgical scar. A part of an organ in the abdomen, such as the bowel or intestines, protrudes through the weakened area of the abdominal wall. Incisional hernias are caused by thinning or stretching of scar tissue that forms after surgery. This weakened scar tissue then creates a weakness in the abdominal wall. Excessive weight gain, physical activity that places pressure on the abdomen, pregnancy, straining during bowel movements because of constipation, severe vomiting causes the scar tissue to thin or stretch. Because the abdominal wall is weak, the hernia occurs during abdominal strain.|
Blacks Veterinary Dictionary
Saunders Comprehensive Veterinary Dictionary, 3 ed.
Hernias in the Dog and Cat
||Surgery to Repair a
Unilateral Perineal Hernia
||Inguinal, Umbilical and Diaphragmatic Hernias in
||Hernias in Canines